20th Century Unit 3 20th Century History- Unit 3

B2- Autobahn -  Germany's super highway.  It is widely regarded as the world's 1st motor way.  It was built in Berlin between 1913 and 1921.  Autoban's generally have 4 lanes in each direction and are designed for high-speed traffic flow.  There are strict regulations that need to be followed when designing and making autobahn's.  There is not a specific speed limit, which attracts many people who want to try their luck and skill at this fast-paced highway.

C2- Agatha Christie -  An English mystery author.  She grew up playing by herself the majority of the time, which she claimed helped her develip an active imagination.  She first wrote The Mysterious Affair at Styles, featuring a Belgian detective named Hercule Poirot.  This was an original "Locked Door" mystery, in which the crime seems impossible due to all the doors and windows being locked from the inside.  After many novels, Agatha grew somewhat tired of her character so she tried to create more detectives but the readers didn't like them much.  She finally created another lasting character, "Aunt" Jane Marple who is the sort of character known as an "armchair" detective.  Though she seldom leaves her house, Aunt Jane solves mysteries by listening carefully to the stories of those who visit her.  Poirot's "little grey cells" and Marple's "knowledge of people" earned each of them a lasting place in mystery fiction.  Agatha wrote 88 books in 60 years, and had some mysteries in her own life, including a two-week disappearance that has never been fully explained.

D2- Raul Capablanca -  Famous world champion chess player from Havana, Cuba.  He won the world's championship from Emanuel Lasker in 1921, retaining the title until he was defeated by Alexander Alekhine in 1927. His game was almost free from false interpretations of position, and his technique was highly refined.

B3- Johnny Weissmuller-  A famous swimmer and Olympic champion who captured the hearts of the American public.  He was picked to star in the Tarzan movies, using his athletic physique to swing on vines, swim raging rivers, wrestle with crocodiles, and pound his chest what became the signature Tarzan yell.

C4- Jack Dempsey-  Famous boxer from WV who was nicknamed the "Manassa Mauler".  Claimed he was a good boxer because he would carry rocks of silica for the miners and the silica dust got into his pores and toughened his skin.

A5- Collectivization -  A plan utilized by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union to bring communism to the people.  Stalin had little communities built for people to live in, work together, and collect goods to share with each other.  The collectives were simply a way of using the Russian love of community to reinforce the tenets of communism. 

B5- 5-Year Plan-  Marxism says there isn't any government in a true communist state.  Stalin says that Russia needed a government for 5 years and then would get rid of it.  Five years passed, and Stalin states that Russia "needs" five more years to get the communist state in Russia correct.  This was all a trick which continued consecutive 5-year-plans.  Stalin killed NO LESS than 20 million people, forced confessions from innocent people for crimes HE committed and then executed them.

A6- Rugged Individualism - Believing rights of an individual far outweigh the right's of Society.  A person should be able to decide for themselves if they want to take a harmful drug, look at pornography, etc.  Basically, Society shouldn't be able to tell a person what to do.  Rugged Individualism was a very big role in the early American years.

D6 - F. Scott Fitzgerald -  Famous author.  He wrote The Great Gatsby.  It was about a mysteriously rich man and controversy over how he got all his money.  He mysteriously won the heart of his friend's girlfriend and he is mysteriously murdered.  Also wrote Saturday Eventing Post, which was a popular fiction that got him well noticed.  Generally wrote short stories to get out of debt.  Eventually became an alcoholic, but always wrote sober.  Fitzgerald tried his hand at movie making, however, was not at successful with it as he was with his short stories.  in 1940, he died from a heart attack, believing he was a failure.

A7- T.S. Eliot-  Famous poet.  Went to Harvard and recieved his BA and MA degrees.  He wrote poems that became broadway's "Cats" from his collection of poems, known as The Wasteland. Wrote numerous poems.  Later wins the Nobel Prize for literature.  Died in 1965 and was cremated.  

B8- Ernest Hemingway-  Famous author.  He was known for long, descriptive passages.  He wrote Old Man and the Sea, A Farewell to Arms, and For Whom the Bell Tolls.  As a boy, he participated with the school newspaper.  Later, after graduating, he became a reporter for a Kansas newspaper.

C8- Dorothy Parker -  She was a newspaper writer who was very witty and humorous.  It was uncommon for a woman to be considered humorous back then.  She grew up in a boarding school.  Her poem Any Porch was published by Vanity Fair.  The magazine later fired her because she was far too sarcastic for a woman in her time.  Later on, she wrote "Such a Pretty Little Picture."  This launched her literary career.  She started writing articles for LIFE magazine.  On a trip to France, she met Ernest Hemingway and they became good friends.  Her outstanding literary work earned her the O. Henry award, along with an offered screen-writing contract from MGM.  She was often quoted.

D8- Rudolph Valentino-  He was a famous movie star with dark features.  He played as a lot of Arabs and was considered a sex symbol.  He played in The Sheik.  He died at the right time because movies with sound were becoming a lot more common and he didn't have the greatest voice for acting.

B9- Gene Tunney-  Famous boxer.  In order to be a great boxer, you need a great rival.  Jack Dempsey was his great rival.  They had 3 GREAT fights.  He was the world heavy-weight from 1926-1928.  Ended with a 65-1-1 record.

C9- Alek Alekhine -  Russian chess player.  He is to Raul Capablanca what Jack Dempsey is to Gene Tunney.  He left his native Russia and never really returned to Russia due to the conditions in his homeland.

D9- Bennie Oosterbahn - Went to the U. of Michigan.  He was a natural athlete.  He was signed up for football and excelled in basketball, baseball, hockey, and track.  Lettered in all of them and was All American and All Big 10.

A10- D.H. Lawrence-  He was a smut writer and was banned from Boston.  He wrote erotic Romances.  Lady Chatterly's Lover was his most famous book.  It caused a scandle in England (where he was originally from) and it was even banned in the US and the UK for being pornographic.  A lady in England is upper class but disrespected because she had illegitimate sex with the gardner.  He also wrote many famous poems.

B10- Simon Kuznets- Came from Russia. Professor of economics at Harvard.  Created the GNP (Gross National Product).  Who is the wealthiest nation?  Kuznets solves this and finds that America is a lot further ahead of other countries than we originally thought.  He won the 1971 Nobel Peace Prize.  Wrote numerous books on economics.

D10- Pluto-  Newly discovered planet.  It was named pluto after the Roman God of the underworld (dark and cold).  It is the 9th and furthest known planet from the sun.   In 1929, the search for a new planet was resumed at Lowell Observatory, and on Feb. 18, 1930, using photographic plates and a blink microscope, Clyde W. Tombaugh discovered an object whose motion was consistent with that of a trans-Neptunian planet.

A11- Dashiell Hammett-  He was a mystery writer.  Creates a new genre of detective.  Old detectives were brainy but this detective was rough and tough.  Known as a "Hard Boiled Detective."  He writes the Maltese Falcon.  Sam Spade was the detective.  His partner gets murdered and a woman tells Spade that the people were after a rare falcon.  Dashiell Hammett was addicted to drugs and alcohol and eventually killed himself.

B11- Ogden Nash-  He wrote short, funny poems.  He was originally a newspaper writer.  He made up new words to fit his poems. Famous for "Candy is dandy, but liqour is quicker."  His poems varied in lengths, ranging from 2 lines to pages and pages of verses.  Published many books of poems on any topic you could think of.  In 1950, he started writing Children's Stories and even wrote the lyrics for Peter and the Wolf.

C11- The Lone Ranger-  One of the first serials on radio.  The Lone Ranger would be played, basically like a visionless show.  This is where the "William Tell" song came from.  George Seaton was the voice of this black-masked Ranger.   It played on the radio for the first time in 1933.  It originated from the radio station WXYZ in Detroit, Michigan.  It eventually broadcasted over 3000 times and traveled to over 400 other radio stations in the US.  The Lone Ranger's last broadcast was in 1955.

D11- Bobby Jones-  Famous golfer.  He was also a lawyer.  He designed many golf courses including Augusta.  He founded the Master's Tournament in 1934.  Was the first and only to win a Grand Slam by winning the British and US Opens along with the British and US Amateurs in 1930.

C12- Elijah Poole-  A black man from detroit.  He started Nation of Islam for African-Americans.  He felt that black people needed a religion of their own.  He ended up changing his name to Elijah Muhamed.  Helped build schools for education for his people.  He was later arrested in 1942 for refusing to participate in the draft for World War II..  Finally released, became a promoter of Malcom X.

B14- Erle Stanly Gardner-  He was a mystery writer.  He was aslso an attorney for 22 years.  Wrote the Perry Mason series.  Perry Mason was a smart-elick detective.

C14- Arch Ward-  A sports writer from Chicago.  He invented the All-Star Game (first game was in Chicago).  Carl Hobble was an all-star pitcher and faced 5 consecutive future hall of famers including Babe Ruth.  He was also the founder of the Chicago College All-Star Football Game and the All-American Football Conference.

A15- Alfred Caplin-  A Jewish man that changed his name to "Capp" because of ethnic discrimination.  He was a satirical cartoonist.  He made "Little Abner" who was kind of like Jethro on the Beverly Hill Billys (Beverly Hill Billys was based on this).  Retired the strip in 1977 and he died two years later.

B15- Rex Stout-  Another mystery author.  Very good at math, eventually devised a school banking system that was installed in 400 cities throughtout the US.  Used the "armchair" detective, Nero Wolfe.  Nero gets his info from his right hand man, Archie.

C16- Bennie Goodman-  Known as the "King of Swing," he played the jazz claranet.  Music was evolving from huge orchastras to small bands.  His small band was made up of 4 other guys.

A17- Charles Richter-  Created the Richter Scale to measure earthquakes.  It was set on an expenintial scale (a 5 is ten times bigger than a 4 which is a huge difference).  Also wrote a few books on the science of seismology.  The scale was first used in 1935.

B17- Bill W.-  He invented Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) with his 12 step program.  He was an alcoholic himself.

C17- George Gallup-  He invented scientific polling.  People didn't want to make something people wouldn't buy.  Gallup used 3000 random people and had 3% + or -.

D17- Wallis Simpson-  A girl who fell in love with the king of England.  She was a divorced American and the King of England gave up the throne to marry her.

C18- Alf Landon-  Presidential candidate in 1936 from Kansas.  He was a banker and oil operator before he ran for public office. Landon served (1933-37) as governor of Kansas and gained a national reputation by his economic administration. As Republican candidate for president in 1936, running against Franklin Delano Roosevelt, he carried only Maine and Vermont.

A19- Margaret Mitchell-  A novelist from Atlanta, Georgia.  She wrote "Gone With the Wind" and won the Pulitzer Prise in 1936 for it.

D20- Amelia Earhart-  A female pilot.  She was very outgoing but didn't enjoy the spotlight.  She mysteriously crashed or went down in the Pacific.

A21- Chester Carlson-  He was a patent lawyer, he invented (1938) xerography, a method of electrostatic printing, and made a fortune from the Haloid Co. (later the Xerox Corp.). The first Xerox copier was marketed in 1959.

C22- Snow White -  Walt Disney wanted to make a featured film cartoon.  People said there was no way anybody would want to watch a 90 minute cartoon.  Walt sold his Mickey Mouse (mortgage) to make Snow White.  He ended up making a fortune off it and then got back Mickey.

Comp. 9-  Frederick Dannay and Manfred Lee were known as "Ellery Queen."  They combined to be the perfect author, "Civilian Detective."